This report is the result of nine months of research by the International Human Rights and Conflict Resolution Clinic of Stanford Law School (Stanford Clinic) and the Global Justice Clinic at New York University School of Law (NYU Clinic). Professor James Cavallaro and Clinical Lecturer Stephan Sonnenberg led the Stanford Clinic team; Professor Sarah Knuckey led the NYU Clinic team. Adelina Acuña, Mohammad M. Ali, Anjali Deshmukh, Jennifer Gibson, Jennifer Ingram, Dimitri Phillips, Wendy Salkin, and Omar Shakir were the student research team at Stanford; Christopher Holland was the student researcher from NYU. Supervisors Cavallaro, Sonnenberg, and Knuckey, as well as student researchers Acuña, Ali, Deshmukh, Gibson, Salkin, and Shakir participated in the fact-finding investigations to Pakistan.
In December 2011, Reprieve, a charity based in the United Kingdom, contacted the Stanford Clinic to ask whether it would be interested in conducting independent investigations into whether, and to what extent, drone strikes in Pakistan conformed to international law and caused harm and/or injury to civilians. The Stanford Clinic agreed to undertake independent fact-finding and analysis on these questions, as well as others related to drone strikes and targeted killings in Pakistan, beginning in December 2011. Later, the NYU Clinic agreed to join the research project and participated in the second research trip to Pakistan, as well as in additional research, writing, and editing of this report. [Read the full report]
Taken from the foot-notes:
 US officials told the New York Times that the CIA and NSA investigate drone casualties by watching the aftermath of strikes by video, and “track[ing] the funerals that follow.” Shane, C.I.A. is Disputed on Civilian Death Toll in Drone Strikes, supra note 157. They further “intercept cell phone calls and emails discussing who was killed.” Id. The sufficiency of this method of post-strike investigation is questionable, given frequently poor cell signals in the area, and given that most households do not have the electricity or infrastructure to support an internet connection. See Tayyeb Afridi, Would Social Media Bring Change to Pakistan’s Tribal Area?, KUTNews Austin (May 25, 2011), http://kutnews.org/post/would-social-media-bring-change-pakistan%E2%80%99s-tribal-area (noting that social media and internet service are generally unavailable in FATA due to lack of electricity, and high cost); Interview with Noor Behram, in Islamabad, Pakistan (Mar. 9, 2012).